The magnetic moments is a property that we use to verify the quality of our magnets. It is a way to measure the strength of a magnet and is widely used throughout the industry. Moreover, it is an easy, quick, and repeatable measurement.

The magnet grade and magnet volume define the magnetic moment. Testing for it confirms:

the correct magnet grade was chosen,
the magnet has the correct dimensions & orientation, and
the magnet was fully and properly magnetized.
The magnetic moments is a measurement of the overall magnetic output of a magnet. Many illustrations of magnets show ‘lines of flux’ going from one magnetic pole to the other:

MAGNETIC MOMENT - Magnetic lines of flux

Magnetic lines of flux from a cylinder-shaped magnet

So, the magnetic moment is the summation of all those lines. Assuming the magnet is fully and properly magnetized, the two main factors determining the magnetic moment are the Type/Grade of magnet material and the Volume of a magnet.

The stronger the magnet grade, the larger the magnetic moments
The larger the magnet volume, the larger the magnetic moments
As a rough approximation, the four major types of permanent magnet material can be ranked lowest to strongest:

Hard ferrite/Ceramic
Samarium Cobalt
Neodymium Iron Boron
For the same size magnet, here is an illustration depicting the relative magnetic lines of flux:

In conclusion, here are some examples:

magnetic flux lines

magnetic flux lines

The Earth’s magnetic moment is 8 x 10 22 Ampere-meter2
A bowling ball made of Neodymium Iron Boron (strongest grade) would have a magnetic moment of 5937 Ampere-meter2
A Neodymium Iron Boron (strongest grade) disc the same size as a US Penny would have a magnetic moment of 0.4824 Ampere-meter 2
A Neodymium Iron Boron disc in a typical mobile phone has a magnetic moment of 0.007909 Ampere-meter2

Neodymium Magnetic Wall Stud Finder

100kgs / 220lbs Rare Earth Permanent Neodymium Magnetic Lifter

50 x 50 x 25mm thick Rubber Coated N42 Neodymium Magnet with 8.2mm dia Countsunk Hole

Sintered Neodymium Iron Boron Magnets

Bonded Neodymium Iron Boron Magnets

Disc Neodymium Iron Boron Ø6 x 5mm N50

Small N42 Neodymium Iron Boron Disc Jewelry Clasp Magnets

Neodymium Iron Boron Large Countersunk Ring Magnet N42H OD120mm

Multi-Use Radial Magnetic Ring Neodymium Iron Boron N45 for Indian

Neodymium Iron Boron Hooks 18KG

Neodymium Iron Boron Micro Block Neo Magnets