The two major material routes of soft magnetic materials

The two major material routes continue to iterate, and the comprehensive performance of the metal soft magnetic powder core is outstanding
Metal soft magnetic powder cores and amorphous nanocrystals are currently two development routes for high-end soft magnetic materials that coexist. Metal soft magnetic powder core not only improves the defect of low magnetic permeability of traditional metal soft magnetic, but also achieves a saturation magnetic induction far exceeding that of ferrite soft magnetic, with excellent comprehensive performance. In addition to the cost disadvantage, amorphous nanocrystal has more excellent comprehensive performance, and has the characteristics of energy saving in manufacturing, application and recycling. It is a green and recyclable material with a full life cycle.

Metal soft magnetic powder core

Metal soft magnetic powder core is a soft magnetic material formed by pressing magnetic powder coated with insulating medium. It is the soft magnetic material with the best comprehensive performance in the field of soft magnetic materials today. The magnetic performance of the soft magnetic powder core combines the advantages of metal soft magnetic materials and soft ferrite. Because the powder is made of ferromagnetic particles, the saturation magnetic induction is high. At the same time, because of the existence of an insulating layer, its resistivity is also high. . In terms of molding process, compared with amorphous soft magnetic, it is mature and has strong plasticity. Soft magnetic powder cores can meet the needs of high frequency (KHz~MHz) use and miniaturization at the same time, and can be processed into annular, E-shaped, U-shaped, etc. to meet different applications.

Metal soft magnetic powder cores can be divided into iron powder cores, carbonyl iron powder cores, sendust magnetic powder cores, iron silicon magnetic powder cores, high magnetic flux magnetic powder cores, and iron nickel molybdenum magnetic powder cores. Among the alloy metal soft magnetic powder core materials, metal iron-nickel powder core materials have excellent performance, but are difficult to be adopted on a large scale due to their high price. Although iron-based amorphous powder core materials have good magnetic core loss and saturation characteristics, there are still structural problems such as reliability and magnetic core molding compression that cannot be completely solved in a short time. Mass production and use It is still difficult to realize. Under the medium and high frequency working conditions, the iron-silicon metal magnetic powder core soft magnetic material is one of the ideal materials that can meet the requirements. Iron powder core: It is made of pure iron powder, which is coated with an organic binder after being coated with insulation on the surface. It is widely used in energy storage inductors, dimming chokes, EMI noise filters, DC output/input filters, etc. Carbonyl iron powder core: made of ultra-fine pure iron powder, it has excellent bias magnetic properties and good high frequency adaptability. Its DC bias characteristics are far superior to other magnetic powder cores, and it is an ideal material for manufacturing high-frequency switching circuit output choke coils, resonant inductors and high-frequency tuning cores.

Sentinel magnetic powder core: a soft magnetic composite material produced from alloy powder of 85%Fe, 9%Si, 6%Al, suitable for power factor correction circuit (PFC inductor), pulse flyback transformer and energy storage filter inductor. Ferrosilicon magnetic powder core: developed relatively late, made of alloy powder of 94% Fe and 6% Si, suitable for chokes under high current, power inductors with high energy storage, PFC inductors, etc., in solar energy, It is widely used in new energy fields such as wind energy and hybrid electric vehicles. High-flux magnetic powder core: The magnetic powder core with the highest magnetic flux density, which has excellent DC bias characteristics, low loss and high energy storage characteristics. High flux powder cores are ideal for high power, high DC bias applications such as dimming inductors, flyback transformers, line noise filters, pulse transformers, and power loop correction inductors. Iron nickel molybdenum magnetic powder core: a powder core material made of alloy powder of 17% Fe, 81% Ni and 2% Mo, also known as molybdenum permalloy magnetic powder core, with high magnetic permeability, high resistivity, low Hysteresis and low eddy current loss characteristics. In the field of magnetic powder cores, iron nickel molybdenum magnetic powder cores have the lowest loss and the best temperature stability. Suitable for use in flyback transformers, high-Q filters, step-up and buck inductors, power factor correction inductors (PFC inductors), filters, etc.

The two major material routes of soft magnetic materials

The two major material routes of soft magnetic materials

Amorphous nanocrystalline

Amorphous and nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials have the advantages of high saturation magnetic induction, high magnetic permeability, low loss, good temperature characteristics and temperature stability. They are substitutes for traditional silicon steel, ferrite and permalloy, and are known as New green energy-saving materials in the 21st century are widely used in information communication and power electronics industries, promoting and realizing the development of electronic products in the direction of energy saving, miniaturization, and high frequency.

(1) Amorphous alloy industry

Amorphous alloy, also known as “liquid metal, metallic glass”, is a new type of soft magnetic alloy material. It mainly contains iron, silicon, boron and other elements. The manufacturing process of its main product, amorphous alloy thin strip, is to rapidly cool the alloy melt at a rate of 106°C per second by rapid cooling technology to form an amorphous alloy thin strip with a thickness of about 0.03mm. Ordered non-crystalline arrangement. Thanks to the special atomic structure formed by the above-mentioned extreme production process, amorphous alloy has excellent characteristics such as low coercive force, high magnetic permeability, high resistivity, high temperature corrosion resistance and high toughness. Amorphous alloys have advantages in energy saving and emission reduction due to their material properties of high electromagnetic energy conversion efficiency. At present, amorphous alloy materials are mainly used in the field of distribution transformers. Compared with silicon steel materials, amorphous alloy materials have outstanding energy-saving and environmental protection characteristics, and are recyclable green materials with a full life cycle of “energy saving in manufacturing, energy saving in use, and energy saving in recycling”. On the application side, the no-load loss of amorphous transformers can be reduced by about 60% compared with silicon steel transformers, realizing energy saving in use; The silicon and boron elements in the iron core can basically be recycled and reused to realize recycling and energy saving.

(2) Nanocrystalline alloy industry

Nanocrystalline mainly refers to iron-based nanocrystalline alloys, which are amorphous alloys formed by rapid cooling of iron, silicon, boron and a small amount of copper, niobium and other elements, and then undergo a highly controlled annealing process to form A material with a mixed structure of bulk and amorphous structure. Nanocrystalline materials benefit from the advantages of high saturation magnetic density, high magnetic permeability, and high Curie temperature. Compared with ferrite soft magnetic materials, nanocrystalline materials have significant advantages in the pursuit of miniaturization, light weight, and complex temperatures. Advantage. It is mainly used in the production of inductive components, electronic transformers, transformers, sensors and other products, which can be used in new energy vehicles, consumer electronics, new energy power generation, home appliances and particle accelerators and other fields. Especially in recent years, the gradual promotion of nanocrystalline alloy materials in emerging industries such as wireless charging modules and new energy vehicle motors has gradually opened up a broad market growth space.

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