The New Technology PVD of Our Magnets, Physical vapour deposition (PVD)

Grain boundary diffusion process (Dysprosium, Terbium)
Key word: High HCJ & High (BH)max & High thermal stability

Current situation:
Comprehensive properties limited. N50H, N48SH, N45UH, N35EH.
High HCJ & (BH) max unavailable or not common in the market, such as N50UH, N48EH, N50SH, N48UH.
High grade means high price.

What we can do:
Improving the Comprehensive Magnetic Properties of magnets, meanwhile reduce the cost.
Reduce formula cost.
New option for motor design: High torque & high working temperature is avaliable for some special motor.
Replace other magnets, such as Samarium cobalt.

What we have:
Original magnet manufacture is core competencies.
Advanced PVD process centre & Independent grain boundary diffusion process.
Experienced R&D team.

Technical data comparison

Substrate magnet Diffusion
(Dy)
Diffusion
(Tb)
After Diffusion
Grade dimension Hcj
(KOe)
Magnet Flux
(nVsm)
Hcj
(KOe)
Hcj
(KOe)
Magnet Flux
(nVsm)
N45SH 30×14.5×2.5 20.25 1.283 1.294 27.34 29.56 1.293 1.29
N45M 32x12x3 15.2 1.043 1.044 20.23 22.81 1.05 1.053
N52 14×11.5×2.5 13.18 0.785 0.789 19.07 21.16 0.786 0.789

 

Substrate magnet Diffusion
(Dy)
After Diffusion Dysprosium
Grade dimension Hcj
(KOe)
Hcj
(KOe)
Aging test condition Aging test result
N45SH 30×14.5×2.5 20.25 27.34 130°C
2hours
1mm iron
1.284 1.281 1.283 1.282 1.279
1.282 1.278 1.28 1.28 1.276
0.16% 0.23% 0.23% 0.16% 0.23%
N45M 32x12x3 15.2 20.23 130°C
2hours
1mm iron
1.032 1.028 1.035 1.035 1.026
0.873 0.866 0.896 0.879 0.895
15.41% 15.76% 13.43% 15.07% 12.77%
N52 14×11.5×2.5 13.18 19.07 130°C
2hours
1mm iron
0.782 0.769 0.783 0.784 0.746
0.675 0.669 0.693 0.682 0.676
13.68% 13.00% 11.49% 13.01% 9.38%

 

Substrate magnet Diffusion
(Dy)
After Diffusion Dysprosium
Grade dimension Hcj
(KOe)
Hcj
(KOe)
Aging test condition Aging test result
N45SH 30×14.5×2.5 20.25 29.56 150°C
2.5hours
1mm iron
1.303 1.296 1.299 1.296 1.296
1.284 1.267 1.284 1.281 1.277
1.46% 2.24% 1.15% 1.16% 1.47%
N45M 32x12x3 15.2 22.81 130°C
2hours
1mm iron
1.053 1.057 1.056 1.058 1.056
1.046 1.051 1.047 1.046 1.049
0.66% 0.57% 0.85% 1.13% 0.66%
N52 14×11.5×2.5 13.18 21.16 130°C
2hours
1mm iron
0.792 0.79 0.793 0.794 0.791
0.785 0.778 0.786 0.785 0.788
0.88% 1.52% 0.88% 1.13% 0.38%

Price comparison

The semifinished magnet price reduce much, which lead to reduce 10-20% for the final magnet price.

semifinished magnet price reduce much

semifinished magnet price reduce much

Our regular customers start to use new magnets after reliability test, and consider to develop new motor under higher magnets.

Physical vapor deposition (PVD) involves the high-temperature evaporation of metals and other elements and their redeposition on to a suitable substrate. The technique has been used mainly to produce thin films and coatings, one example being the deposition of titanium nitride to improve the wear resistance of steel tools. Now the development of high-energy-rate processes involving, for example, the use of intense electron beams, is enabling PVD to be applied to produce alloys in bulk. Individual elements can be evaporated and then co-deposited to give new compositions and microstructures having extremely fine grain sizes, extended solubilities and freedom from segregation.

The New Technology PVD of Our Magnets

The New Technology PVD of Our Magnets

As one example, an experimental aluminium alloy RAE72, containing the normally insoluble elements chromium (7.5%) and iron (1.2%), was produced in England in slab form using PVD. The alloy vapor was deposited on a 500 × 300 mm2 collector plate at a rate of 6 mm h−1 to a thickness of 44 mm and then warm rolled to sheet. Elevated temperature tensile results showed that the alloy has a specific strength exceeding that of titanium alloys at temperatures up to 300°C. The high strength of the alloy was attributed to a combination of solid solution strengthening by chromium, precipitation of fine particles of AlFe3, and the very fine grain size of the matrix.

Another use of PVD is to prepare alloy compositions that cannot be produced by ingot metallurgy. One example has been the alloying of titanium with the comparatively volatile metal magnesium which, in fact, boils below the melting point of titanium. Experimental Ti–Mg alloys have been found to respond to age hardening and the precipitates that form appear to be exceptionally stable. Magnesium also has the advantage of reducing the density of titanium by more than 1% for each 1 wt% that is added.

Advanced coatings play an important role in a wide range of industrial applications. These coatings are commonly used in machining tools due to their high hardness and wear resistance, but also can be applied in jewellery and decorative purposes. Deposition techniques have seen a strong evolution as result of the directly related devices, control evolution and software. Several variants have been developed around the main techniques: arc evaporation and sputtering. The coatings produced present significant differences in their characteristics, namely in terms of structure, mechanical properties and surface morphology. Depending on the substrate material and application, the deposition process needs to be properly selected, providing the particular characteristics requested. This paper intends to do a critical review of the evolution of the advanced coatings deposition process, mainly focused on the Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) process, particularly in the Magnetron Sputtering technique, which is able to produce smooth surfaces, using lower temperatures, presenting excellent mechanical and tribological properties and having very good adhesion to the main materials used as substrate.

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