Stator and rotor are the key components of permanent magnet synchronous motor
The motors in new energy vehicles mainly include drive motors and micro motors. The drive motor can convert electrical energy into mechanical energy to provide power for electric vehicles according to the law of electromagnetic induction. It is mainly composed of stators, rotors, casings, end covers, connectors, resolvers and other components. Mainstream motor types mainly include DC motors, AC asynchronous motors, permanent magnet synchronous motors and switched reluctance motors. Among them, the permanent magnet synchronous motor is currently the most widely used motor, with a penetration rate of over 90%.
Compared with ordinary motors, permanent magnet synchronous motors use permanent magnets instead of the excitation windings of the rotor, which can maintain the magnetic field without energization, and adjust the speed by adjusting voltage or resistance. Not only do they use less silicon steel sheets, copper and other materials, It also reduces the current loss and stator loss of the stator and rotor. Therefore, the permanent magnet synchronous motor has the advantages of energy saving and high efficiency, excellent speed regulation performance, small size, light weight, and simple structure, but the disadvantages are high cost, poor reliability of high-level vibration, and easy demagnetization when the temperature difference is large. The working temperature of the motor used in energy vehicles is usually between 180-200 degrees Celsius, while the Curie temperature of NdFeB magnets is around 340 degrees.
Working principle of permanent magnet synchronous motor: The permanent magnet synchronous motor is started by the asynchronous torque of the rotor winding. After the start-up is completed, the rotor winding is no longer active, and the magnetic field generated by the permanent magnet and the stator winding interacts to generate driving torque. Specifically, when the three-phase stator winding of the permanent magnet motor is connected to the three-phase alternating current, the stator rotating magnetic field will be generated, and the stator rotating magnetic field will generate current in the cage winding relative to the rotation of the rotor, forming the rotor rotating magnetic field, at this time the stator rotates The asynchronous torque generated by the interaction between the magnetic field and the rotating magnetic field of the rotor causes the rotor to accelerate from rest. When the rotor accelerates to a speed close to the synchronous speed, the speed of the stator’s rotating magnetic field is slightly higher than that of the rotor’s permanent magnetic field, and they interact to generate torque to pull the rotor into a synchronous operating state. In synchronous operation, no current is generated in the rotor winding. At this time, only the permanent magnet on the rotor generates a magnetic field, which interacts with the rotating magnetic field of the stator to generate a driving torque.
The stator and rotor are the core components in the motor. The stator is the stationary part of the motor. There are many windings wound inside the cylinder. The windings are connected to the external power supply, and the entire cylinder is fixed with the machine base. The stator is composed of iron core magnetizer (silicon steel sheet) and three-phase winding (coils are arranged symmetrically to form a 360-degree cylindrical stator every 120 degrees in the stator).
The rotor is the cylinder with the windings wound inside the stator, the rotating part in an electric motor. They are connected to the PTO shaft of the electric motor and rotate at the same speed. There is no link and contact between the stator and rotor. The rotor is composed of permanent magnets and iron core magnetizers. The permanent magnets are usually installed around the rotor iron core. The installation methods include surface protruding, surface embedded and embedded. The protruding installation costs less, and the embedded installation can be made into pole pieces on the surface to improve the linear distribution of the magnetic field and help to improve the power density and overload capacity of the motor itself.
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