Motors with permanent magnets:
Motor design and features
Motors dedicated to variable speed drives, such as electric vehicles drives, should be characterized by high efficiency, high overload capacity and wide range of rotational speed control. These demands are fulfilled by synchronous motors with permanent magnets, designed with two-zone speed control. The first control zone covers speeds from zero speed to base speed nb; the motor runs with constant voltage to frequency ratio U1 /f (i.e. constant magnetic flux) and its electromagnetic torque T is more or less proportional to supply current I1. This is constant torque operation zone.
When motor attains base speed nb, the supply voltage is equal to maximum voltage U1max, which may be generated by power electronics converter, supplied from e.g. battery.
When speed is greater than base speed nb, motor operates in second control zone; increase of rotational speed is possible when magnetic flux in the air gap is adequately weakened.
When supply current I1 is constant, motors mechanical power Pm is also constant; this is constant power operation zone.
Using electrical motor together with power electronics converter results in:
significant decrease of transport costs (per 100 km) in relation to ICE vehicles (the expected cost of 100 km route should not exceed 5 zł, which is equivalent to less than 1 litre of fuel)
lack of detrimental emission (most significant in city traffic),
possibility of energy recuperation during braking,
silent, safe and reliable operation,
traction parameters same or better compared to present-day traction vehicles (greater acceleration and more effective braking),
less wear of braking system elements such as brake shoes and disks,
— incomparably higher efficiency of energy transformation in drive circuit (in case of most modern IC engines efficiency does not exceed 45%, while modern electrical motor is characterized by energy transformation efficiency – electrical to mechanical – in excess of 90%).
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