Magnets measured and graded for strength, quality, etc. here you can learn about it, thanks.

Magnets measured and graded,

Magnets measured and graded

Magnet Strength Measurements (B)–The units for measuring the field strength (flux density) of a magnet are Gauss or Tesla. 1 Tesla = 10,000 Gauss. The Earth’s magnetic field is on the order of 1 Gauss. There are different ways to classify and measure field strength:

B (flux density): This is the measurement (in Gauss or Tesla) you get when you use a gaussmeter at the surface of a magnet. The reading is completely dependant on the distance from the surface, the shape of the magnet, the exact location measured, the thickness of the probe and of the magnet’s plating. Steel behind a magnet will increase the measured ‘B’ significantly. Not a very good way to compare magnets, since B varies so much depending on measurement techniques.

Br (residual flux density): The maximum flux a magnet can produce, measured only in a closed magnetic circuit. Our figures for each magnet are provided to us by the magnet manufacturer (HSMAG). They are a good way to compare magnet strength…but keep in mind that a magnet in a closed magnetic circuit is not doing any good for anything except test measurements.

BH-Curve

B-H Curve: Also called a “hysteresis loop,” this graph shows how a magnetic material performs as it is brought to saturation, demagnetized, saturated in the opposite direction, then demagnetized again by an external field. The second quadrant of the graph is the most important in actual use–the point where the curve crosses the B axis is Br, and the point where it crosses the H axis is Hc (see below). The product of Br and Hc is BHmax. If we have these measurements available, they are provided to us by the magnet manufacturer–very complicated and expensive equipment is needed to plot a B-H curve.

Magnet Quality (BHmax): The quality of magnetic materials is best stated by the Maximum Energy Product (BHmax), measured in MegaGauss Oersted (MGOe). This is because the size and shape of a magnet and the material behind it (such as iron) have a large effect on the measured field strength at the surface, as does the exact location at which it measured. All of our Nickel-plated NdFeB magnets are grade N35 (BHmax=35 MGOe) and all of our Gold-plated NdFeB magnets are grade N45 (BHmax=45 MGOe). This gives about a 5% difference in strength, and a 150% difference in cost…it is wise to balance your magnet strength needs by cost too. Other magnets are measured the same way — a grade 8 ferrite magnet (grade C8) has BHmax=8 MGOe.

BHmax-Normal-Curve

BHmax-Normal-Curve

Coercivity (Hc): This measures a magnet’s resistance to demagnetization. It is the external magnetic field strength required to magnetize, de-magnetize or re-magnetize a material, also measured in Gauss or Tesla.

Curie Temperature (Tc): This is the temperature at which a magnet material loses it’s strength, permanently. Another useful number (if available) is Tmax, the recommended maximum operating temperature. Above Tmax (around 266 deg. F for most NdFeB magnets) a magnet will start ot lose its power, and at Tc all power is lost. If you need strong magnets that can be used at high temperatures, consider using Samarium Cobalt (SmCo) magnets.