Magnetic Material Classification, The classification of magnetic material
According to the magnetic material under action of external magnetic field, the material is divided into anti magnetic material, anti ferromagnetic material, magnetic material. The latter two are strong magnetic material, magnetic material is widely used in science and technology.
Magnetic materials classification generally divided into metallic materials and non-metallic magnetic materials two categories, they are single crystal, polycrystalline, thin film amorphous form. Metallic materials are iron, cobalt, nickel and its alloys and compounds. Their advantages are:
1 have good magnetic properties such as po Mo alloy maximum permeability can reach millions of rare earth cobalt permanent magnetic, magnetic energy product can reach 2eX10+J / m3.
2 has the stable magnetic effect of temperature on the magnetic properties of the very small, limit the use of high temperature. Such as aluminum nickel cobalt permanent magnetic energy in more than 500 ℃ temperature.
3 good ductility, low hygroscopic it in industry, science and technology is widely used, is the development of the electric power industry, radio, electronic computers, instrumentation, aerospace, automatic control and the use of all necessary electrical Department of materials.
This kind of material has low resistivity, high frequency loss, poor chemical stability, weight the disadvantages.
Non metallic materials usually refers to the ferrite. Ferrite old name “ferrite”, in the industry has been called the “magnetic ceramics”. It is a composite oxide to iron oxide and other iron group or a rare earth oxide as the main component. Most of them have ferrimagnetic. Compared with the metal magnetic material, to highlight the advantages of ferrite is resistance, so the application in an alternating magnetic field, eddy current loss than metal magnetic material is much lower, so the ferrite is especially suitable for high frequency and microwave technology. In addition, it has high permeability at high frequency, small volume, light weight, low price, therefore it in telecommunications, radio technology, computer, automatic control has been widely used techniques, especially the exhibit a series of unique properties in microwave technology. But the shortage is the saturation magnetic induction B. Low, low Curie point, temperature coefficient.
Magnetic materials according to the purpose and characteristics are divided into five categories:
1 permanent magnets (known as magnetic material) such as neodymium iron boron permanent magnet, aluminum nickel cobalt permanent magnet, rare earth samarium cobalt permanent magnet, ferrite magnet etc.. The biggest characteristic of this kind of material is the coercive force is big, the general H is greater than 120A / m. The external magnetic field, still can remove magnetic a longer period of time to maintain a strong and stable. Most of these materials are used to generate a magnetic field in a given space, such as a magnetic field source. Such as various kinds of instrument, speaker, magnetic bearing, permanent magnet motor magnet, can also generate rotating torque using the hysteresis characteristics of this kind of material (such as a hysteresis motor etc.). At present, the strongest magnetic material is rare earth samarium cobalt and neodymium iron boron permanent magnet. There is a semi permanent magnetic materials, the magnetic energy between hard and soft magnetic materials, but close to the permanent magnetic materials, the coercivity of 0.125 3X10A / m. This kind of material such as iron cobalt vanadium, carbon steel and so on, which are used in some relays and hysteresis motor.
2 soft magnetic materials such as silicon steel sheet, electrician with pure iron, iron nickel alloy, iron and aluminum alloy, soft magnetic ferrite. The biggest characteristic of this kind of material is coercive force He, permeability, easy to be magnetized, but also easy to lose magnetism. This kind of material used for all kinds of iron magnetic device in DC magnetic field (such as solenoids, relays etc.) of the core, in the alternating magnetic field can be used as a generator, transformer, motor and various frequency components in communication technology, but also can be used for magnetic shielding. Soft magnetic materials, magnetic materials, is the most widely used. It is one of the development of industrial technology base material.
3 rectangular magnetic materials such as po Mo alloy, magnesium manganese ferrite, magnetic bubble material etc.. It is a kind of soft magnetic material. It has a moment of magnetic material magnetic, namely +B and B, two stable states. This is the two is easy to save and discern the state, which can be used for computing the memory element, a switching element, logic elements and magnetic amplifier, the iron core magnetic modulator.
4 spin magnetic material (also called microwave ferrite) such as spinel and garnet ferrite. This kind of material in the ultra high frequency electromagnetic field, has many useful properties, such as ferromagnetic resonance effect, Fala rotation effect. They have been widely used in microwave technology.
5 pressure magnetic material (also called magnetostrictive material) such as nickel zinc ferrite, nickel magnesium ferrite etc.. The main characteristics of this kind of material is along with the change of the magnetization state (such as the external magnetic field increases or decreases), material length and volume change. It can be used to make electrical energy into mechanical energy, or convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. This kind of material used for the ultrasonic generator, ultrasonic welding machine, echo sounder transducers and mechanical filter. Ultrasonic welding device, echo sounder transducers and mechanical filter.
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