HALL EFFECT MAGNETS
Hall Effect devices usually have three connections a Vcc (dc power supply positive terminal), Ground (dc power supply negative, zero or ground) and Vo (dc output voltage).

Hall Effect devices differ to Reed Switches in that they are more sensitive to the magnitude, direction and polarity of the magnetic fields being applied. Gaussmeters uses Hall Effect devices to operate.

Hall Effect Magnets

Hall Effect Magnets

The Hall Effect device is a semiconductor which has an electrical current flowing through the semiconductor – a voltage is created (Hall Voltage) when a magnetic field is perpendicular to the active element of the semiconductor. The Hall Voltage is proportional to the magnitude of the perpendicular magnetic field. The magnetic field causes the charge carriers, electrons and holes in the semiconductor to move to one side of the semiconductor, creating a potential difference across the semiconductor which is the Hall Voltage. Usually, Hall Effect devices output zero voltage output when no magnetic field is applied.

Some Hall Effect devices only work when a South Pole of a magnet face them; others only work with a North Pole facing.

Hall Effect devices are sensitive to the angle of the magnetic field relative to the active element of the semiconductor. When the field is perpendicular, maximum voltage is possible, as the angle reduces from 90 degrees, the Hall Voltage will fall by a ratio of the sine of the angle (sine90=1, sine60=0.866, sine45=0.707, etc).

Ideally the voltage output is linearly proportional to the applied field strength. The voltage is also linked to the perpendicularity of the applied field – a Sine (angle) relationship exists e.g. maximum output when the field is 90 degrees to the semiconductor active element. Some electronic chips have multiple Hall Effect Devices to allow measurement of North and South Magnetic fields. Some Hall Effect chips contain more than one device and allow applications such as 3D field mapping to be possible. Other chip variants also exist e.g. some Hall Effect Devices allow temperature correction.

Some Hall Effect devices give an output of half the supply voltage when no magnetic field is present then increase of decrease the voltage depending on whether a North or South magnetic field is applied.
Some Hall Effect devices have trigger levels to provide a digital high or low to give clean digital switching they are often known as Hall Effect Switches.
Some Hall Effect devices have trigger levels to provide latching ability linked to a digital high or low output to give clean digital switching (staying on one state with a North and not changing state until a South is applied) they are often known as Hall Effect Latches.
Some Hall Effect devices have Schmitt triggers built into them to help avoid “chattering” when the device is near its trigger value to change state.

 

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