Development history of soft magnetic materials
Magnetic materials can be mainly divided into two categories: permanent magnets and soft magnets. Permanent magnetic materials are also called hard magnetic materials, which can retain their remanence for a long time, have high coercive force, and can withstand not too strong magnetic field interference. Correspondingly, soft magnetic materials have low coercive force and high magnetic permeability, which are easy to be magnetized by an external magnetic field and easy to demagnetize. Its main function is the conversion and transmission of magnetic conduction and electromagnetic energy. It is widely used in electric energy conversion equipment and is an important material in the electronic power era. Soft magnetic materials can be mainly divided into three categories: metal soft magnetic, ferrite soft magnetic, amorphous and nanocrystalline. Metal soft magnetic is widely used, with an annual output of more than one million tons worldwide. It can be further subdivided into categories such as pure iron, silicon steel, permalloy, and metal soft magnetic powder cores. Among them, metal soft magnetic powder cores have the best performance and are used in photovoltaics and energy storage. , new energy vehicles and other sectors are widely used.
Soft magnetic materials have a history of more than 100 years in industrial applications, and can be divided into four development stages according to time:
The first stage was from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, when soft magnetic alloys such as pure iron and silicon steel came out one after another. Pure iron is the earliest soft magnetic material used in industry. In 1886, West inshouse Electric Company of the United States first used hot-rolled low-carbon steel sheets with an impurity content of about 0.4% to make transformer laminated iron cores. With the rise of electric power industry and telecommunication technology, low carbon steel is widely used to make motors and transformers. At the beginning of the 20th century, silicon steel sheet was developed to replace low carbon steel, which improved efficiency and reduced loss. So far, the use of silicon steel sheets for soft magnetic materials in the power industry still ranks first. At the same time, with the development of telephone technology, the requirement of materials with high magnetic permeability was put forward in weak current engineering, and various soft magnetic alloys such as iron-nickel series came into being. By the 1920s, the rise of radio technology promoted the development of high-permeability alloys, such as Permalloy (78Ni-Fe), Mumetal (77Ni-5Cu-Fe), Pominwa ( Perminvar, 43Ni-23Co-Fe), Permindur alloy (50Co-2V-Fe) and Permalloy magnetic powder cores have appeared one after another. Development history of soft magnetic materials
The second stage is from the 1930s to the 1940s. Metal soft magnetic materials developed rapidly, and ferrite soft magnetic materials came into being. From the 1930s to the 1940s, metal soft magnetic materials developed rapidly in terms of variety, performance and application. During this period, multi-component permalloy, sendust aluminum powder high magnetic permeability alloy and unidirectional silicon steel were developed, and carbonyl iron powder was pressed into iron powder core. At the same time, research on ferrite also began: With the development of high-frequency radio technology, a material with both ferromagnetism and high resistivity is urgently needed in production. In 1935, Snoek, Philips Laboratory in the Netherlands, successfully developed Ferrite suitable for high-frequency applications has realized the industrialization of spinel zinc ferrite and opened the prelude to the application of soft ferrite materials in industry.
The third stage was from the 1950s to the 1970s, when major breakthroughs were made in ferrite production, and the invention of nanocrystalline alloys became a new milestone in the development of soft magnetic materials. In the 1950s, people developed various types of ferrite such as garnet ferrite and planar ferrite, which laid a solid industrial foundation for ferrite. After 20 years of development until the 1970s, the magnetic permeability of ferrite produced was significantly increased, the loss was reduced, and the frequency band was widened. In 1988, Hitachi Metals Corporation of Japan developed nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy through crystallization treatment on the basis of amorphous alloy. High magnetic permeability, low loss. It has few components and does not contain valuable elements such as Co, Zr, Nb, B, etc., and is a low-cost iron-based material. The invention of nanocrystalline alloys is a breakthrough in soft magnetic materials, which pushes the research and development of amorphous alloys to a new climax. Development history of soft magnetic materials
The fourth stage is from the 1980s to the present, the industrialization of high-performance soft magnetic composite materials, and the market share has increased year by year. With the exception of iron powder cores, which were developed in the early 20th century, most magnetic powder cores were developed in the 1980s. In the early 1980s, carbonyl iron powder cores began to be mass-produced, and sendust magnetic powder cores were successfully developed and gradually realized industrialization. Iron-silicon magnetic powder cores, high-flux magnetic powder cores, and iron-nickel-molybdenum magnetic powder cores came out one after another. In 1984, the Allied company of the United States pressed amorphous powder into an amorphous magnetic powder core, which has the performance of low loss and high DC bias, but the cost is relatively high. In recent years, due to the two advantages of high saturation magnetic flux density and high application frequency band of soft magnetic composite materials, the market share has grown rapidly year by year.
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