Classification and performance of magnetic materials
Classification and performance of magnetic materials – Magnetic materials can be divided into permanent magnetic materials, soft magnetic materials and functional magnetic materials according to their functions. The indicators to measure the performance of magnetic materials mainly include three series: stability, demagnetization resistance, and temperature resistance. Permanent magnets, also known as hard magnets, refer to magnetic materials that are not easily demagnetized after being magnetized by an external magnetic field. Soft magnets are magnetic materials that are easily demagnetized after being magnetized by an external magnetic field. The difference between hard magnetism and soft magnetism mainly lies in the different coercive force. The soft magnetism with lower coercive force is easy to magnetize and demagnetize, and the higher hard magnetism is difficult to demagnetize once it is magnetized.
The most widely used magnetic materials in new energy vehicles are NdFeB permanent magnets in permanent magnets, ferrite permanent magnets and silicon steel in soft magnets, metal magnetic powder cores, and ferrite soft magnets. Among permanent magnets, NdFeB permanent magnets are superior to the other two types of magnets in terms of residual magnetic induction, intrinsic coercive force, and maximum energy product. A larger residual magnetic induction intensity indicates that the motor has a large torque, a high load speed, and a small no-load and load current; the intrinsic coercive force is large, the motor is relatively stable in different environments, and the working performance is stable and reliable; the maximum magnetic energy product is large. The smaller the volume of material required for the magnetic field strength. Although the Curie temperature of NdFeB is low and it does not work well at high temperatures, the other three performances are all excellent, and it is a well-deserved “Magnetic King”. Studies have shown that the high temperature resistance of NdFeB magnets can be significantly improved by increasing Dy (dysprosium).
In soft magnetism, silicon steel sheets and amorphous are in a competitive relationship. The magnetic permeability of traditional silicon steel sheets becomes smaller at high frequencies, and the iron loss is larger, while the magnetic permeability of amorphous alloys hardly changes. Therefore, in high frequency motors such as drive motors And generators, amorphous alloys have certain advantages, but the disadvantages are thin, brittle, hard, difficult stamping after forming, high cost, and high vibration noise at high frequencies, so it is necessary to develop new topological structures and manufacturing processes. The two are more suitable for low-to-medium frequency scenes. Ferrite and alloy soft magnetic powder cores complement and compete with each other. The saturation magnetic induction of ferrite is lower than that of alloy soft magnetic powder cores. Loss and increase the operating frequency of the magnetic core, reduce the volume and quality of the magnetic core, so ferrite soft magnetic is suitable for high-frequency and low-power scenarios, and always plays a leading role in low-current and low-power applications. Alloy soft magnetic powder core combines the advantages of metal and ferrite soft magnetic materials. Its resistivity is greatly improved compared with soft magnetic metal, which can effectively reduce eddy current loss, and has higher saturation magnetic induction than soft ferrite, which can meet the requirements of electric power. Miniaturization of electronic devices, high power density, high frequency, and integration requirements, but also have better mechanical shock resistance, wider operating temperature range (-55 ° C -200 ° C), etc. The power part will replace ferrite soft magnets to a certain extent, but due to defects such as aging, heat dissipation, and high loss, it is more widely used in places that require high power and miniaturization.
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