Analysis of Upstream Industry of Magnetic Materials
Rare earth materials include titanium alloys, rhenium, rare earth magnesium alloys, ferric oxide, etc. The upstream of magnetic materials is mainly the separation, mining and smelting of rare earth ores. Rare earth ores mainly exist in the form of minerals in the crust, and there are mainly three types: as The basic constituent elements of minerals, rare earths exist in the mineral lattice in the form of ionic compounds, constituting the essential components of minerals. As an important strategic resource, rare earths are under the control of the national department. The production, smelting and separation of rare earths are strictly controlled in China. In 2014, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology began to integrate the national rare earth mines and smelting and separation enterprises in the form of a group. The supply is controlled by six major groups. It is China Northern Rare Earth Group, Aluminum Corporation of China, Xiamen Tungsten Industry Group, China Minmetals Group, Guangdong Rare Earth Group and China Southern Rare Earth Group; in 2021, it will be further integrated into four major rare earth groups, and the quota system will be strictly enforced. The control index for rare earth mining in 2021 is 168,000 tons, a year-on-year increase of 20%, and the total control index for smelting and separation in 2021 is 162,000 tons, a year-on-year increase of 20%.
2017-2021 China’s rare earth mining, smelting and separation total control indicators (10,000 tons)
After 2011, China implemented dual controls on the supply and export of rare earths. The supply and demand of the rare earth market were both tight, so that the price continued to rise. Rare earths are the raw materials of magnetic materials, which are widely used in new energy electrical appliances, power communication equipment and military aerospace. In other fields, in order to meet the needs of downstream fields such as national defense, military and new energy electrical appliances, the United States, Myanmar and other countries have increased the mining of rare earth resources. China is the country with the largest distribution of rare earth production in the world. In 2021, China’s rare earth production will be 16.8 In 2021, the United States will produce 43,000 tons of rare earths, accounting for 15% of the world’s rare earth production. The global rare earth production is moving in the direction of diversification.
Regional distribution of global rare earth production in 2021 Production (10,000 tons)
From 2017 to 2018, the export volume and export value of rare earth products are in a growing trend. However, due to the increase in the price of rare earth products in China and the escalation of Sino-US trade frictions in 2019, the export volume of rare earth products in 2019 decreased by 12.64% year-on-year, and the export value decreased year-on-year 10.57%. In 2020, due to the impact of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, the export volume and export value of rare earth products in 2020 will drop sharply. 48,900 tons, an increase of 38.14% year-on-year, and the export value was 4.22 billion yuan, an increase of 77.09% year-on-year.
China’s rare earth export volume and export value from 2017 to 2021
The average export price of rare earths in China increased steadily from 55,000 yuan/ton in 2017 to 67,200 yuan/ton in 2020, and the average export price of rare earths increased rapidly to 86,300 yuan/ton in 2021, a year-on-year increase of 28.42%.
Magnetic materials, that is, extra-strong magnetic materials, are ancient and widely used functional materials, and the magnetism of materials has been recognized and applied by people as early as 3000 years ago. In ancient times, natural magnets were used as compass. Modern magnetic materials are used in our daily life, such as using permanent magnet materials as motors, core materials used in transformers, magneto-optical disks used as memories, magnetic recording floppy disks for computers, etc. Magnetic materials can be divided into soft magnetic materials and hard magnetic materials according to the difficulty of demagnetization after magnetization. The material that is easy to demagnetize after magnetization is called soft magnetic material, and the material that is not easy to demagnetize is called hard magnetic material. Generally speaking, the remanence of soft magnetic materials is small, and that of hard magnetic materials is relatively large. Magnetic materials are an important branch of metal functional materials, and are also important basic functional materials. They are widely used, such as mineral processing, household appliances, medical and health care, automobiles, automatic control, information technology and other fields. At the same time, magnetic materials are also used as a clean energy source. It has received more and more attention in emerging fields such as energy conservation and environmental protection, new energy, electric vehicles, and smart cities, and gradually responds to military, national defense and other fields such as robots, drones, aerospace, and satellite remote sensing. direction of development.
The upstream of the industrial chain of magnetic materials is mainly rare earth mining, separation and smelting, the midstream is NdFeB deep processing enterprises, and the downstream is traditional application fields such as consumer electronics and basic industries, as well as emerging application fields such as new energy, energy conservation and environmental protection. The raw materials of rare earth permanent magnet materials are rare earth metals and rare earth oxides, which are also the main application fields downstream of the rare earth industry chain.
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